Microprocessor Programming Tutorial

8086 Assembler Tutorial Prof. In process control today, more than 95% of the control loops are of PID type, most loops are actually PI con-trol. A college textbook in digital logic design for CS and EE. microcontroller programming. The microprocessor, also known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU), is the brain of all computers and many household and electronic devices. But if a program is sending data to the serial port, then a higher update frequency might be used in order to see the data arrive promptly. Internal architecture of 8085 microprocessor 2. Every flip-flop has restrictive time regions around the active clock edge in which input should not change. Our Microprocessor tutorial includes all topics of Microprocessor such as introduction, features, types of microprocessor, architecture, applications, instruction set of 8085, instruction set of 8086, programming etc. 8085 system bus 3. Motorola M6800 Microprocessor Applications Manual Motorola Inc. Programming model of 8085 microprocessor 6. Downloading TASM Method 1-. Microprocessor have less number of registers, hence more operations are memory based. Might have a look at NASM, YASM. welcome to part two of my new tutorial series on programming for the Vita, where we be laying the groundwork for you to develop your own homebrew / port games to the vita! Today we will be doing a controller sample with our beautiful unofficial VitaSDK and vita2dlib. The Atmel STK500 development board and the ATmega16 chip are used in this tutorial; however, it is easy to adopt the information given here for other AVR. Learn for free about math, art, computer programming, economics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, finance, history, and more. Microprocessor • A silicon chip that contains a CPU. The objective of this note is to show. It can assemble, debug 8085 assembly code and simulate the 8085 microprocessor. 13 videos Play all 8085 Microprocessor Programming Easy Class For Me Hacking Starbucks WiFi with a Raspberry Pi and Kali Linux - Duration: 22:14. Emu8086 is a Microprocessor Emulator with an integrated 8086 Assembler and Free Tutorial. Microprocessor. About The Tutorial C is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis M. Tutorials, references, and examples are constantly reviewed to avoid errors, but we cannot warrant full correctness of all content. Finally, you built the first circuit so that we could have something to write a program for. Microprocessor consists of register, control array, and control unit. So there is nothing about programming or methodology or style or anything other than the mechanics of Assembly Language, you don't need to know anything about programming to take the course but the better you are at programming, the easier this course will be. In those days there was Masm. However, Java is often used to refer Java programming language for simplicity. PDF | On Jan 1, 2010, D. Type "edit example1. LCD and Strings. After the request is completed, the control goes back to the main program. What is Microprocessor? Microprocessor is a CPU fabricated on a single chip program controlled device, which fetched the instructions from memory, decodes and execute the instructions. Here is a complete list of pic microcontroller tutorial for beginners. Currently there are a few assemblers. Here are some list of Interview Question Answers on 8086 Microprocessor. pdf), Text File (. Figure - Format of flag register There are total 9 flags in 8086 and the flag register is divided into two types: (a) Status. microprocessor tutorial. Both the IC's i. A program called an assembler takes this assembly language program and converts it to the machine code that the computer will be executing. 2shared - Online file upload - unlimited free web space. Its data bus is 8-bit wide and hence, 8 bits of data can be transmitted in parallel from or to the microprocessor. The first assembly code does not look very attractive, with every 100 additional lines programmed it looks better. Assembly In One Step by Ron Kneusel adapted from Leo Scanlon's 6502 Software Design. CALL address is the format for unconditional call instruction. Microprocessor Hand Written Full Notes Download. The 8085 Microprocessor kit is a low-cost single board computer designed for self-learning the 8085 Microprocessor. Interfacing to input/output peripherals such as displays, keypads, sensors, digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters, and communication devices among others. Keil MDK is the complete software development environment for a wide range of Arm Cortex-M based microcontroller devices. Tuesday, 28 November 2017 2 comments 8085 program for 2's complement of a number Finding Two's complement of a number, 2's. 8085 has Von Neumann architecture. ALGORITHM: 1) Start the program by loading the first data into Accumulator. MCU programming and 'big' computer programming are basically the same. Design, create, and deploy a fun IoT device using Arduino and Raspberry Pi platforms. microprocessor previous question papers for diploma write an 8086 program to ad two 16-bit numbers in CS and DX and store the result in location 0500H addressed. As a basis of study, the book develops portions of a fully working Chess engine called speedeCHESS. The Intel 8085 is an 8-bit microprocessor. Microprocessor Tutorial Microprocessor Introduction Types of Microprocessors Microprocessor Architecture Instruction Set of 8085 Programming in 8085 Microprocessor Applications 8086 Microprocessor Instruction Set of 8086 Multiprocessor Configuration Memory and I/O Interfacing Microcontroller Peripheral Devices. Of course if you have knowledge of some other programming language (Basic, C/C++, Pascal) that may help you a lot. Even tabs, laptops and other gadgets use this. William Michalson Advisor Prof. It is the first board based on Intel® architecture designed to be hardware and software pin-compatible with shields designed for. It can assemble, debug 8085 assembly code and simulate the 8085 microprocessor. PLC Programming Tutorials : Learn about PLC's like GE, ABB, Siemens, Allen Bradley, Omron PLC's etc. In this tutorial, we will discuss the architecture, pin diagram and other key concepts of. the best 8085 microprocessor tutorial. If you have any questions to ask, or any advice or feedback to share, then feel free to contact me by email at markeyjester "at" gmail "dot" com. Whew that was a lot!. Before going further, it will be interesting for you to understand the difference between a Microprocessor and Microcontroller. - Microprocessor is a program-controlled device, that fetches the instructions from memory, decode it & executes the. Important programs of 8086 (Exam point of view) 1. I use PICs personally, and there is quite a lot of. For example, the instruction CPI 'C' may be interpreted as compare the contents of the accumulator with the letter C. Some (like the Diecimila and ) have theLilyPad LED built-in to the board. 8086 Assembler Tutorial for Beginners (Part 1) This tutorial is intended for those who are not familiar with assembler at all, or have a very distant idea about it. 8086 Assembler Tutorial for Beginners(PART-1) This tutorial is intended for those who are not familiar with assembler at all, or have a very distant idea about it. If the program is to be stored in volatile memory, such as the operating computer’s RAM memory, there may be a way to type it in by hand through that computer’s keyboard (some computers have a mini-program stored in ROM which tells the microprocessor how to accept keystrokes from a keyboard and store them as commands in RAM), even if it is. The first microprocessor was Intel 4004 (early 1970's) used in calculators. Java Project Tutorial. In the world of personal computers, the terms microprocessor and CPU are used interchangeably. Try writing a program that uses BEQ. The Intel 8085 requires a 16-bits. Adding other dialects later is easy. Type "edit example1. Type "edit example1. Some tutorials I have seen give very few, and very complex examples. BASIC Commands; PICAXE Create. Micro controller have more number of registers, hence the programs are easier to write. Other places are assembly books or online assembly tutorials. (I'll talk about this in detail when we start programming) 4. Program Counter (PC) This 16-bit register deals with sequencing the execution of instructions. The fabrication process and programming technique which are responsible in the development of microprocessors has also lead to the development of microcontrollers. The PIC16F87XA devices have a 13-bit program counter capable of addressing an 8K word x 14 bit program memory space. In this tutorial, we will discuss the architecture, pin diagram and other key concepts of microprocessors. COUPON: Rent Microprocessor Architecture, Programming, and Applications with the 8085 5th edition (9780130195708) and save up to 80% on textbook rentals and 90% on used textbooks. PIC microcontroller is very convenient choice to get started with a microcontroller projects. The microprocessor was the resulting circuit of achievement. Designer and course leader for HND Computer Automation and Networking. How to Use Arrays with Arduino. Instruction format. com, la nouvelle source de l’émulation sur Internet. com Version 0. To write machine language was really difficult. Education software downloads - Microprocessor 8085 Simulator Software Kit by Neelachal and many more programs are available for instant and free download. 8086 Assembler Tutorial for Beginners(PART-1) This tutorial is intended for those who are not familiar with assembler at all, or have a very distant idea about it. • Use of programming language constructs in program implementation. Microcontroller programming can seem a bit tricky because there are many confusing choices to make. Microprocessor is also called Central Processing Unit (CPU) since it is the functional centre of the computer system and it is used to process data. Addressing modes. In this you can store numbers from 0 to 255, in hexadecimal it is represented as 0x00 to 0xFF. ehmm this brings me back almost to the time i still had zits. Let’s take a look. Instructions that use immediate addressing have data assembled as a part of the instruction itself. A classic introductory text online, also available here. Introductory Microcontroller Programming by Peter Alley A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE in partial ful llment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Robotics Engineering May 2011 Prof. Important programs of 8086 (Exam point of view) 1. inc how shift registers work lcd. Microcomputer Programming and Software Support (Tutorial) anthology of papers. 601171Mhz / 15). introduction to 8086 Microprocessors 2. In this tutorial, I’ll discuss what the C programming language is, what C programming is used for, and how to write and run a C program on the Raspberry Pi. Microprocessor Hand Written Full Notes Download. ICOM 5217 – Microprocessor Interfacing: Development of microprocessor based systems for embedded applications. 8085 program for 2's complement of a number; 8085 program to find one's complement of a number; 8085 Program to Add contents of two memory locatio. Describe the basic architecture of computer system. Microprocessor. Addressing modes. basic programming. The exception handler chosen is said to catch the exception. Now a days, a microprocessor based systems are used in instructions, automatic testing product, speed control of motors, traffic light control , light. Even tabs, laptops and other gadgets use this. PHY 406 - Microprocessor Interfacing Techniques © James R. All general registers of the 8086 microprocessor can be used for arithmetic and logic operations. Assembly Language Programming Basics An introduction to microprocessor concepts, assembly language, and assembly processes Many tutorials for microprocessor. Full graphical illustration of the 8085 simulator only a few clicks away now. Introduction and MPI installation. , PhD is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3. Assembly Language Assignment Help, Conditional branch instruction-microprocessor, Conditional branch Instruction When these type of instructions are executed, they transfer control of execution to the address mention relatively in the instruction, provided the condition implicit in the op code is satisfied, or else, the execut. Java Project Tutorial. Microprocessor Tutorials A microprocessor is a multipurpose, programmable, clock-driven, register-based electronic device that reads binary instructions from a storage device called memory, accepts binary data as input and processes data according to those instructions and provide results as output. It is a register used to store the address of the last program request made by the processor inside a stack. SARAVANAKUMAR. CALL address is the format for unconditional call instruction. The Arduino Due is a microcontroller board based on the Atmel SAM3X8E ARM Cortex-M3 CPU. This program is. This is the first in a long line of tutorials aimed to provide a beginners guide and tutorial based around the Atmel AVR Atmega32 microncontroller. It keeps fluctuating at number. Micro processor architecture and microprogramming, Basic components of a microprocessor, Structure of 8086 CPU, Logical Organization of Memory in INTEL 8086 Microprocessor, Register set of 8086, Flags Register, Data Transfer Instructions, Program Execution Transfer Instructions, conditional jump instructions, String Instructions, Processor Control Instructions, Addressing modes, Register. The fabrication process and programming technique which are responsible in the development of microprocessors has also lead to the development of microcontrollers. Prerequisite. This is an on-line text book with self-marking homework, revision and test questions for Electronics. An important feature of the Arduino is that you can create a control program on the host PC,. 8085 has 246 instructions. You’d be hard pressed to find any sensor in the DIY market that doesn’t give you a dozen cookbook recipes to follow after a simple Google search. Each output represents one of the miniterms of the 2 input variables, (each output = a miniterm). Of course if you have knowledge of some other programming language (Basic, C/C++, Pascal) that may help you a lot. A microprocessor which has n data lines is called an n-bit microprocessor i. In this tutorial, we will discuss the architecture, pin diagram and other key concepts of microprocessors. These tiny chips have already revolutionized our society to promise to do so more in the future. In the previous tutorial on the first program for the LCD, we could only display single characters. Microprocessor Simulator, Electronics and Computing Tutorials. But if a program is sending data to the serial port, then a higher update frequency might be used in order to see the data arrive promptly. ehmm this brings me back almost to the time i still had zits. Stack pointer: Stack pointer act as a pointer to the certain address. Added 25/11/2007. There are 5 interrupt signals in 8085 microprocessor: INTR, RST 7. 8086 Microprocessor Tutorial Pdf Free 14 >> DOWNLOAD. This means we can add. List all the general purpose registers. CALL address is the format for unconditional call instruction. Instruction Set: The set of instruction microprocessor can execute. Pfeiffer, Jr. elementary programming as welk as advanced concepts whiмe covering both hardware and software. It is classified into five categories. The i386 was the first 32-bit microprocessor available for commercial use. Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. This is an 8-bit microcontroller. The two bytes from the top of the stack are copied into the program counter,and program execution begins at the new address. Keil MDK is the complete software development environment for a wide range of Arm Cortex-M based microcontroller devices. Its data bus is 8-bit wide and hence, 8 bits of data can be transmitted in parallel from or to the microprocessor. ICOM 5217 – Microprocessor Interfacing: Development of microprocessor based systems for embedded applications. , LECTURER, DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING 2 ADDITION OF TWO 8 BIT NUMBERS AIM: To perform addition of two 8 bit numbers using 8085. Addressing modes. Microcontroller programming can seem a bit tricky because there are many confusing choices to make. It is machine-independent, structured programming language which is used extensively in various applications. 8085 pin description. 8085 functional description. Each instruction is represented by an 8-bit binary value. This is an 8-bit microcontroller. 8088/8086 Microprocessor Programming. A microprocessor is a computation engine in a single. Newbiehack is an online store for microcontroller related items and learn microcontroller programming, basic electronics and embedded systems fundamentals. Each ‘box’ of a flow chart has a purpose and replaces numerous lines of text programming code. 8085 microprocessor architecture details 1. Erasure of eproms with ultraviolet light. We’re happy to guide you forward with our resources for middle school, high school, and college-level courses. When assembled, this instruction has the hexadecimal value FE43. Introduction to M68000 Microprocessor Physics116B, 2/28/05 D. See: JavaScript: Arduino Programming on Node. After the request is completed, the control goes back to the main program. Another example is Intel’s 8080. Internally the 68000 is a 32-bit microprocessor - it has 32-bit data and address registers. interrupts in 8085. It is the first board based on Intel® architecture designed to be hardware and software pin-compatible with shields designed for. Interview Questions on Microprocessor:-1) What type of architecture used in 8085 microprocessor?Interview Questions on Microprocessor 8085. If people remain interested I will continue to put out one a week or so until I run out. If you know C, programming the Arduino will be familiar. Microprocessor Tutorials. 8085 system bus 3. it might be due to some technical problems by hardware or software etc. device is 55H for 8086 microprocessor. In process control today, more than 95% of the control loops are of PID type, most loops are actually PI con-trol. PLC Programming Tutorials : Learn about PLC's like GE, ABB, Siemens, Allen Bradley, Omron PLC's etc. Prerequisite. EASy68K Home Page E ditor/ A ssembler/ S imulator for the 68000 Includes S-Record and Binary file utility. SID: It is an active high signal and it is used to send data to the microprocessor serially. Good knowledge on microprocessors is required for this job. NetworkChuck 285,357 views. Do not fix the errors until after you try to assemble the program and see the reported errors. Requires S7800A1142 Display to program post purge feature. ehmm this brings me back almost to the time i still had zits. Microprocessor Tutorials A microprocessor is a multipurpose, programmable, clock-driven, register-based electronic device that reads binary instructions from a storage device called memory, accepts binary data as input and processes data according to those instructions and provide results as output. What is a Microprocessor ? A microprocessor is an integrated circuit (IC) which incorporates core functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU). Systemverilog Tutorial. The Intel 8085 requires a 16-bits. The simulator has two parts, an assembler (built using PEGjs) which translates 8085 assembly code to machine code and a 8085 microprocessor simulator (written in C and compiled to JS using Emscripten) which executes machine code. This article series is developed to teach you 8051 micro controller programming. Each instruction is represented by an 8-bit binary value. ? Question2: How are assemblers aided by the use of modular programming techniques. Examples might be simplified to improve reading and basic understanding. BCC and BCS (“branch on carry clear” and “branch on carry set”) are used to branch on the carry flag. microprocessor programming guide. Currently there are a few assemblers. The general registers are: Accumulator register consists of 2 8-bit registers AL and AH, which can be combined together and used as a 16-bit register AX. Tutorial 1 Good Programming Techniques. Memory Interfacing to Microprocessor Multiplexing of lower order address and data bus Schematic block diagram for memory and I/O interfacing with microprocessor The advantages and disadvantages of I/O mapped I/O are given below. 8085 pin description. Written for PC users who are competent in a high-level language (such as BASIC or PASCAL), but who need more flexibility and speed of execution than such languages provide, this book explains the fundamentals of assembly programming and describes the essential details of the 8086 chip. The text is organized in four parts. 8086 is 16-bit microprocessor designed by Intel which gave rise to X86 architecture. PIC microcontroller is very convenient choice to get started with a microcontroller projects. character based LCD HD44780 CGRAM and DDRAM explaination with pinouts and connection circuit diagram. It interprets the commands the user types in and arranges for them to be carried out. Susan Jarvis Committee member Committee member. His team developed the Engduino expressly for this purpose. To satisfy this need a series of hands-on laboratory. With more than 2,400 courses available, OCW is delivering on the promise of open sharing of knowledge. 8085 bus structure. We're here to help you start. Khan Academy is a nonprofit with the mission of providing a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. Code for An Assembly Language Program to check for Palindrome string in Assembly Language Data Segment str1 db 'MADAM', '$' strlen1 dw $-str1 strrev db 20 dup(' ') str_palin db 'String is Palindrome. Welcome to the MPI tutorials! In these tutorials, you will learn a wide array of concepts about MPI. Both of them have been designed for real time application. What is a Microprocessor ? A microprocessor is an integrated circuit (IC) which incorporates core functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU). Architecture of the Digital Signal Processor One of the biggest bottlenecks in executing DSP algorithms is transferring information to and from memory. The 8085 Programming Model In the previous tutorial we described the 8085 microprocessor registers in reference to the internal data operations. Hey Guys, I am new to programming of 8051 microcontrollers. Try writing a program that uses BEQ. this is working or not I am not check out but I know it is working Unknown https://www. Youtube Video :8086 Hello World Program Tutorial For Beginners - Code4beginner. It also mentions 8085 instruction set. We recommend reading this tutorial, in the sequence listed in the left menu. Microprocessor and Interfacing Pdf Notes - MPI Notes Pdf The Microprocessor and Interfacing Pdf Notes - MPI Notes Pdf. Below are the Microprocessor 8085 interview questions and answers which makes you comfortable to face the interviews:. microcontroller programming. Of course if you have knowledge of some other programming language (Basic, C/C++, Pascal) that may help you a lot. This 8085 architecture describes 8085 microprocessor internal modules with block diagram. Even though you can program Trinket using the Arduino IDE, it's not a fully 100% Arduino-compatible. Software for Education: reviseOmatic - electronics tutorials. Memory locations have 16-bit addresses, and that is why this is a 16-bit register. Electronics Technology with Digital and Microprocessor Lab (course 14B) is a laboratory-intensive course that contains 155 lessons with over 100 hands-on training experiments using CIE's Personal Training Laboratory, Multimeter and Digital Security Control Device. Here you can download the free lecture Notes of Microprocessor and Microcontroller Pdf Notes - MPMC Notes Pdf materials with multiple file links to download Microprocessor and Microcontroller Notes Pdf - MPMC Pdf Notes book starts with the topics instruction formats, addressing modes, instruction set, assembler directives,macros,overview of 8051 microcontroller,architecture, I/O ports. If you want your interrupt service routine to permit other maskable interrupts, you must clear the I flag in your code. So, this tutorial here is an attempt at teaching 68k assembly at an extreme beginner's level, to help steer away from all of those vague guides out there. It is important that a computer remembers what it is doing and the data from inputs such as sensors or the keyboar. Each ‘box’ of a flow chart has a purpose and replaces numerous lines of text programming code. CPU Families. IN+ and IN- inputs allow application of different input voltage which has high common mode rejection and eliminates offset due to the zero. 2 The Hello World Example 2-4 2. to understand what the higher-level language compiler produced. This memory is used to store the program after we burn it to the microcontroller. The pages are presented in a carefully considered sequence. All of these programs have been written for 12 MHz 8051 system clock. The PIC16F876A/877A devices have 8K words x 14 bits of Flash program memory that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. com, la nouvelle source de l’émulation sur Internet. 8085 has 246 instructions. When you are ready to begin testing your software application with target hardware, use the MON51, MON390, MONADI, or FlashMON51 Target Monitors, the ISD51 In-System Debugger, or the ULINK USB-JTAG Adapter to download and test program code on your target system. It is basically a brain of the microcontroller. interrupts in 8086. It also mentions 8085 instruction set. Typical programming characteristics such as programming languages, basics of assembly language programming, instruction formats, instruction set architecture (ISA), microprocessor instruction sets, and addressing modes are discussed. But to perform the operation we need an input to enter the data and an output to display the results of the operation. Murugan Andezuthu Dharmaratnam. Program an ATtiny With Arduino: Follows are directions for programming the ATtiny microcontrollers using the Arduino IDE. Abstract: This application note provides an overview of nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH), and lithium-ion (Li-Ion, Li+) rechargeable batteries, discussing their characteristics and explaining how to safely fast charge NiMH and Li-Ion rechargeable batteries in a stand-alone configuration, without the use of a supervising microcontroller. It is intended for students in computer science or computer or electrical engineering who are in the third or fourth years of an undergraduate degree. To write a program for 8085 , divide a given problem in small steps in terms of the operations, which the 8085 can perform; then. Download Microprocessor 8085 Simulator Software Kit for free. – Parallel and/or serial I/O. You’d be hard pressed to find any sensor in the DIY market that doesn’t give you a dozen cookbook recipes to follow after a simple Google search. All data stored in the emulator is in hexadecimal (base 16) which also is the case in the actual microprocessor. microprocessor programming techniques mechanical engineering hand tools pdf pdf Aspects of the 8085 programming we will talk about the programmable 8085. Immediate addressing,Register addressing,Direct addressing,Indirect addressing. pdf download at 2shared. The availability of low cost, low power and small weight, computing capability makes it useful in different applications. Run the program 6. Microchip Technology Inc. That will answer your questions better than anyone using the limited space here. content: microprocessor and programming dtel. On a single integrated circuit, a microprocessor incorporates the functions of a Central Processing Unit (CPU). There are many free software for simulating the assembly code for 8085 microprocessor. In this you can get access to microprocessor 8085 programming tutorial which are all tutored and not only this in this we have microprocessor 8085 programs with opcode. Over 2000 application notes and technical articles written by engineers, for engineers. Doing this with MCU has some advantages also. Study Ladder Logic Lectures and PLC programs. Microprocessor definition is - a computer processor contained on an integrated-circuit chip; also : such a processor with memory and associated circuits. Micro processor architecture and microprogramming, Basic components of a microprocessor, Structure of 8086 CPU, Logical Organization of Memory in INTEL 8086 Microprocessor, Register set of 8086, Flags Register, Data Transfer Instructions, Program Execution Transfer Instructions, conditional jump instructions, String Instructions, Processor Control Instructions, Addressing modes, Register. Free Online Courses with video lessons from best universities of the World. Innovation The Arm Innovator Program highlights the amazing projects and knowledge from top technical experts building on Arm-based technology. Write a program that uses one of these two. 250+ Microprocessor 8086 Interview Questions and Answers, Question1: Define the jobs performed by the BIU and EU in the 8086. IP register always works together. Tutorial on 8086 -> Architecture -> Pin Diagram -> Addressing Modes -> Instruction Sets -> Modes of Operation -> Timing Diagram -> Assembler Directives 3. Memory locations have 16-bit addresses, and that is why this is a 16-bit register. Urgent - Need 8085 Microprocessor by Gaonkar ebook. The assembly programming language is a low-level language which is developed by using mnemonics. 8088/8086 Microprocessor Programming. Below are the Microprocessor 8085 interview questions and answers which makes you comfortable to face the interviews:. Microcontrollers tutorials and projects, PIC microcontroller, 8051, AVR, ARDUINO, ESP32, ESP8266, Respbarry Pi and embedded systems projects and tutorials. The execution of a program starts with the main function. PLC Programming Tutorials : Learn about PLC's like GE, ABB, Siemens, Allen Bradley, Omron PLC's etc. Introduction to 8086 Assembly Language Programming, Joe Carthy, UCD. Stack pointer: Stack pointer act as a pointer to the certain address. Try writing a program that uses BEQ. Program Counter (PC) This 16-bit register deals with sequencing the execution of instructions. Microcontroller Interfacing: Due to my ladder logic compiler, I often get questions on how to build hardware to connect a micro to the outside world.